The question of the possible “humanity” of artificial intelligence is one of the main themes, but it’s worked out poorly, because the androids and the science behind them are worked out very poorly. The androids are practically full-blown biological humans, except for some detail in their bone marrow, at least, that’s the only way for scientist to see. Yet they can’t get children? They do get drunk. They can’t control their physical, sensual passions? They lack empathy, but can sometimes love each other? They die inevitably after about 4 years, because of a cell replacement problem? (If so, why bother hunting them down?)
Dated notions of empathy make the mess even worse: there is talk about empathy not working for carnivores, since they are hunters, and would empathize with their prey. The fact that humans do hunt, is brushed aside. PKD clearly is not a philosopher nor a behavioural psychologist, as empathy is observed in all kinds of animals.
A thing that makes the book very quirky is its focus on animals. Real, live animals are a status symbol on future earth, but this choice seems mostly due to the resulting word play with the title.
Further illustration of the inconsistency of the novel is the fact that the title is not coherent with the story itself, since androids in the story are not electric, but living, organic entities, not made of electric circuits like the fake animals in the story. Moreover, PDK also fails to ask the important question whether there truly is a difference between organic nerves transporting electric signals and inorganic circuitry transporting electric signals.
The fact that the empathy tests to determine whether an individual is an android or not rely for the most part on humans’ empathy with animals is very strange too: as if an apocalyptic world war would turn us all into vegetarians. Again, PKD doesn’t prove to be a great social thinker by making these strange choices. The different relationships between humans-androids-animals-electric animals seem forced and ill-conceived.
As a result of all this, Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? isn’t a book that gives one new insights on what it means to be human at all. Diverse authors like Asimov and Banks have written much more interesting books on AI. Hell, even the Star Trek Voyager TV-series explored the humanity of AI in a much more interesting manner. PKD basically reduces it all to “the will to live” and “empathy”.
The other problem I hinted at in the beginning of this review is the plot. While this could have been an interesting thriller set in an SF-world, it also falls flat in that respect. The androids can’t point and shoot, and the protagonist is able to track down and kill all of his opponents mainly because of sheer luck.
Having said all that, I mostly enjoyed reading the book. It’s not too long (192 pages in my edition), PKD has some good ideas, the setting is good and the atmosphere interesting, and the language and imagery is excellent at times…
But, this is definitely not a timeless SF classic like the Dune-saga or the Foundation trilogy – in dealing with questions about humanity and AI, Philip K. Dick just scratches the surface, in a messy, clumsy way. Yet that’s part of its appeal I guess: clumsy is cute, in a way.
originally written on the 13th of January, 2015